The integration of technology in therapy has taken a significant leap with the introduction of the new Category III CPT® code 0770T, effective from January 1, 2023. This code is designated for reporting the use of virtual reality (VR) technology in various therapeutic services, including Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy. This article delves into the specifics of this new code, its applications in ABA therapy, and scenarios where it is applicable, as well as clarifying common misconceptions.

What is CPT Code 0770T?

CPT Code 0770T is a novel addition to the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) system, specifically designed to account for the use of VR technology in therapeutic settings. This code acknowledges the growing role of immersive technology in enhancing therapeutic outcomes. It is applicable across various therapy forms, including psychotherapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy, and notably, ABA therapy for individuals with autism and other developmental disorders.

The Role of VR in ABA Therapy

In ABA therapy, VR technology offers a unique medium for creating controlled, repeatable, and safe environments for clients. These environments can be tailored to address specific behavioral goals or to simulate real-life scenarios that might be challenging for individuals with autism. For example, VR can be used to teach social skills, coping mechanisms for sensory sensitivities, or to practice daily living skills in a virtual setting.

Successful Integration of VR in ABA Therapy

The use of VR technology in ABA therapy, billed under CPT Code 0770T, has seen some promising applications. For instance, a case study involving a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrated significant improvements in social skills following a VR-based therapy program. The program, designed to simulate real-life social scenarios, allowed the child to practice and develop skills in a safe, controlled environment. The therapist, using VR tools, was able to guide the child through various interactions, gradually building their confidence and competence in social settings.

Another example involves a group therapy session for adolescents with ASD, where VR was used to teach coping strategies for anxiety-inducing situations. The immersive nature of VR enabled the participants to experience scenarios that would be difficult to replicate in a traditional therapy setting. This hands-on approach facilitated a deeper understanding and mastery of coping mechanisms, leading to noticeable improvements in the participants’ ability to handle stress in real-life situations.

These case studies not only demonstrate the practical applications of VR in ABA therapy but also highlight the potential benefits that can be achieved. They serve as compelling examples for therapists considering the integration of VR technology into their practice and provide a basis for advocating its inclusion in insurance coverage under CPT Code 0770T.

Appropriate Use of Code 0770T in ABA Therapy

The use of CPT Code 0770T in ABA therapy is appropriate when:

  • VR Technology is Integral to the Session: The code is used when VR technology is a central component of the therapy session, actively contributing to the therapeutic goals.
  • Documented in Treatment Plans: The use of VR should be clearly documented in the client’s treatment plan, indicating how it aids in achieving specific behavioral objectives.

For instance, a therapist might use VR to help a client practice social interactions in a virtual classroom setting, using the technology to provide immediate feedback and reinforcement.

Scenarios Where Code 0770T is Not Applicable

It’s important to note that CPT Code 0770T is not applicable in all instances where VR technology is present. Situations where this code would not be used include:

  • Supplementary Use of VR: If VR is used as a supplementary tool, rather than a primary therapeutic modality, this code may not be appropriate.
  • Non-Therapeutic Applications: Using VR for entertainment or leisure during therapy sessions does not warrant the use of Code 0770T.

For example, if VR is used merely as a reward at the end of a session, it would not be appropriate to bill using Code 0770T.

Clarifying Misconceptions

There are several misconceptions regarding the use of Code 0770T in ABA therapy:

  • Not Limited to Specific Diagnoses: While particularly beneficial in autism therapy, the use of this code is not restricted to any specific diagnosis.
  • Not a Substitute for Established Codes: Code 0770T is an addition to, not a replacement for, existing ABA therapy codes. It should be used in conjunction with other relevant CPT codes.

Insurance Coverage and Reimbursement for CPT Code 0770T

The introduction of CPT Code 0770T has opened new avenues in therapy, particularly in ABA therapy, where virtual reality (VR) technology is being increasingly utilized. However, the acceptance of this code by insurance providers varies, presenting a mixed landscape for therapists and practices. Some insurers are embracing this innovative approach, recognizing the benefits of VR in enhancing therapeutic outcomes. They are covering sessions under 0770T, acknowledging its potential in providing immersive, controlled environments conducive to learning and behavior modification.

On the other hand, certain insurance companies are more cautious, adopting a ‘wait-and-see’ approach. They are scrutinizing the efficacy and necessity of VR in therapy before committing to regular coverage. This hesitancy can be attributed to the novelty of the technology and the need for more substantial evidence demonstrating its effectiveness compared to traditional methods. For ABA therapists, this means navigating a complex insurance landscape, where they must be prepared to advocate for the use of VR technology and its inclusion under 0770T in their billing. It’s crucial for them to stay informed about the policies of different insurance providers and be ready to provide comprehensive documentation to support their claims.


The introduction of CPT Code 0770T marks a significant advancement in recognizing the role of innovative technologies like VR in enhancing therapeutic outcomes. In ABA therapy, this code opens new avenues for treatment, offering immersive, engaging, and effective ways to address the unique needs of individuals with autism and other developmental disorders. As with any new code, it’s crucial for practitioners to fully understand its appropriate use and to integrate it effectively into their billing practices, ensuring both compliance and the maximization of therapeutic benefits.